Metals and Minerals, A. Jonathan Buhalis
 
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Metals and Minerals: Periodic Table


The periodic table of the elements is the basic roadmap used by chemists. An element is a substance that consists of a single kind of atom. Approximately 92 different elements occur in nature. Each element has different chemical properties, although some are very hard to distinguish.

Elements can be numbered (their atomic number) starting at 1 for hydrogen and going up, based on the element's number of protons. Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev in 1869 published a sequential table of the elements laid out in rows and columns. Elements in the same column had similar chemical behavior; their properties were periodic. Furthermore, this was more than just a graphical trick. Mendeleev predicted that new elements would be found where his table had gaps, and he estimated their properties based on the known elements around it. The discoveries of scandium, gallium, and germanium proved out his predictions.

The modern periodic table (below) has been expanded. The lanthanide row and the actinide row are usually placed below the main table. But, this periodic table is still recognizably the same concept and useful. Each element has a name, an atomic number, and a one- or two-letter chemical symbol.

Many of these elements are discussed as limited resources in the sections on resource metals, precious metals, and minerals. Click on the chemical symbol for the link.
Alkali metals are reactive metals on the left side of the table.
Alkaline earth metals are slightly less reactive metals in the second column.
Rare earth metals are a group of elements with very similar chemical properties. Fifteen of them, starting with 57 lanthanum are usually placed together underneath 39 yttrium.
Actinides are heavy radioactive metals. Elements above 92 uranium are synthetic and are not found in nature(excepting traces of 93 neptunium and 94 plutonium).
Other metals include what are called the transition metals, the precious metals, and some low-melting-point metals toward the right of the table.
Metalloids have some characteristics of metals but not all.
Nonmetals are various solids and gases that do not fit the other categories.
Halogens are nonmetallic elements that are very reactive with elements to their left in the table.
Noble gases are inert gases that are always found as pure elements and do not make chemical combinations.
Dark grey elements with high atomic numbers are discovered so recently that their chemical properties are still unknown.

Periodic Table of the Elements
Alkali metals Alkaline earth metals Rare earth metals Other metals Metalloids Nonmetals Halo­gens Noble gases
Hydro­gen
1
He­lium
2
Lith­ium
3
Beryl­lium
4
Boron
5
Carbon
6
Nitro­gen
7
Oxy­gen
8
Fluor­ine
9
Neon
10
So­dium
11
Magne­sium
12
Alumin­um
13
Sili­con
14
Phos­phorus
15
Sulfur
16
Chlor­ine
17
Argon
18
Potas­sium
19
Cal­cium
20
Scan­dium
21
Tita­nium
22
Vana­dium
23
Chrom­ium
24
Manga­nese
25
Iron
26
Cobalt
27
Nickel
28
Copper
29
Zinc
30
Gallium
31
Germa­nium
32
Arsenic
33
Sele­nium
34
Bromine
35
Kryp­ton
36
Rubid­ium
37
Stront­ium
38
Yttrium
39
Zirco­nium
40
Nio­bium
41
Molyb­denum
42
Tech­netium
43
Ruthe­nium
44
Rho­dium
45
Pallad­ium
46
Silver
47
Cad­mium
48
Indium
49
Tin
50
Anti­mony
51
Tellur­ium
52
Iodine
53
Xenon
54
Cae­sium
55
Barium
56
*
Haf­nium
72
Tanta­lum
73
Tung­sten
74
Rhe­nium
75
Os­mium
76
Iridium
77
Plat­inum
78
Gold
79
Mer­cury
80
Thallium
81
Tl
Lead
82
Bis­muth
83
Polo­nium
84
Asta­tine
85
Radon
86
Fran­cium
87
Ra­dium
88
**
Ruther­fordium
104
Rf
Dub­nium
105
Db
Sea­borgium
106
Sg
Bohr­ium
107
Bh
Has­sium
108
Hs
Meit­nerium
109
Mt
Darm­stadtium
110
Ds
Roent­genium
111
Rg
Coper­nicium
112
Cn
Unun­trium
113
Uut
Flerov­ium
114
Fl
Unun­pentium
115
Uup
Liver­morium
116
Lv
Unun­septium
117
Uus
Unun­octium
118
Uuo
*
Lan­thanum
57
Cerium
58
Praseo­dymium
59
Neo­dymium
60
Prome­thium
61
Sama­rium
62
Europ­ium
63
Gadolin­ium
64
Ter­bium
65
Dyspro­sium
66
Hol­mium
67
Erbium
68
Thulium
69
Ytter­bium
70
Lute­tium
71
 
**
Actin­ium
89
Thor­ium
90
Protac­tinium
91
Ura­nium
92
Neptu­nium
93
Pluto­nium
94
Ameri­cium
95
Curium
96
Cm
Berkel­ium
97
Bk
Califor­nium
98
Cf
Einstei­nium
99
Es
Fer­mium
100
Fm
Mende­levium
101
Md
Nobel­ium
102
No
Lawren­cium
103
Lr
 
(c) 2007-2016 Metals and Minerals
Content by Jonathan Buhalis
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